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Soekarno, The First President of Indonesia

Meet the most influential figure in Indonesia, the first president Soekarno. Until now the father of the Indonesian proclaimer has become one of the most admired figures in Indonesia. He is a celebrity in Indonesia with speech contents that inspire and ignite the enthusiasm of young people in his time. Even today, the contents of his speech are still liked and used as incendiary spirit of the next generation. As the first president, Soekarno was highly respected by the leaders of nations in the world at that time. 

Let’s get to know more about Indonesian National Figure, Soekarno!

1. Biography 

Sukarno was born with the name Kusno Sosrodihardjo. His father named Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo, a teacher in Surabaya, Java. His mother was Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai comes from Buleleng, Bali. Soekarno’s childhood was only a few years living with his parents in Blitar. He also lived for a while with his grandfather, Raden Hardjokromo in Tulungagung before moving with his parents again in Mojokerto.

Bung Karno is a popular name from Soekarno. Bung Karno was the first president of Indonesia, also known as the graduate architect of Hoge Technische School (now ITB) in Bandung with a major in civil engineering and graduated in 1925. Through his life, Soekarno had nine wives. They are Oetari, Inggit Garmasih, Fatmawati, Hartini, Ratna, Haryati, Endah Sanger, Kartini Manopo and Heldy Djafar. Of his marriage with Fatmawati, Sukarno was awarded five children. Namely Guntur, Megawati, Rachmawati, Sukmawati and Guruh. His daughter Megawati also became the fifth president and the first women president of Indonesia.

2. Education

He attended school for the first time in Tulung Agung until finally he moved to Mojokerto, following his parents who were assigned to the city. In Mojokerto, his father included Soekarno in the Eerste Inlandse School, the school where he worked. Then in June 1911 Soekarno was transferred to Europeesche Lagere School (ELS) to make it easier for him to be accepted at the Hogere Burger School (HBS). In 1915, Sukarno had completed his education at ELS and managed to continue to HBS in Surabaya, East Java. He can be accepted at HBS with the help of a friend of his father named H.O.S. Tjokroaminoto.Tjokroaminoto even provided a place for Soekarno to live in his residence. In Surabaya, Sukarno met with many Sarekat Islam leaders, organizations led by Tjokroaminoto at the time, such as Alimin, Musso, Darsono, Haji Agus Salim, and Abdul Muis. Soekarno was then active in the activities of the Tri Koro Dharmo youth organization which was formed as an organization of Budi Utomo.The name of the organization was later changed to Jong Java (Javanese Youth) in 1918. In addition, Soekarno also actively wrote in the daily “Oetoesan Hindia” led by the Indian Tjokroaminoto.

young Soekarno also learns to speech by doing it by himself in his room in front of a mirror. At his school, Hogere Burger School, Soekarno also gained a lot of knowledge related to many things. After completing his education at the Hogere Burger School in 1921, Soekarno moved to Bandung and then lived with Haji Sanusi who then went on to study at the THS or Technische Hooge School in the civil engineering department where ITB was now an ITB and then could graduate on May 25, 1926 thus earning an bachelor in Engineer or Ir.

3. Influences

In 1926, Sukarno founded Algemene Study Club in Bandung. This organization became the embryo of the Indonesian National Party, founded in 1927. Sukarno’s PNI activity causes arrest in the Netherlands in December 1929, and led to a phenomenal pledoinya: Indonesia Sue, to be released back on December 31, 1931. In July 1932, Sukarno joined the Party of Indonesia (Partindo), which is a fraction of the PNI. Sukarno was arrested again in August 1933, and exiled to Flores. Here, Sukarno was almost forgotten by the national figures. But his spirit still burning as implied in every letter to a teacher of Islamic Unity named Ahmad Hassan. In the year 1938 until the year 1942 Sukarno was exiled to the province of new Bengkulu.Soekarno free return during the Japanese occupation in 1942.

Japanese Colonial Period
In the early Japanese colonial period (1942-1945), the Japanese government had not noticed movement figures for Indonesia, especially “secure” its presence in Indonesia. This looks at the character’s Movement 3A and Mr. Shimizu. Shamsuddin is not so popular. But eventually, the Japanese occupation government attention and at the same time take advantage of Indonesian figures such as Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta and others in each of the organizations and institutions to attract the hearts institutions Indonesian population. Mentioned in various organizations such as Java Hokokai, Center for the People’s Power (Putera), BPUPKI and PPKI, of figures such as Sukarno, Hatta, Ki Hajar Dewantara, KH Mas Mansyur and other options mentioned and looks very active. And finally the national leaders in cooperation with the occupation government to achieve the independence of Indonesia, although some are underground movement like Sutan Syahrir and Amir Syarifuddin because they think Japan is a dangerous fascist.

Soekarno and World Leaders
President Soekarno himself, during his opening address before reading the text of the proclamation of independence, saying that although we work together with Japan we actually believe and believe and rely on their own strength. He is active in preparation for the independence of Indonesia, including the formulation of Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution and the basic foundation of Indonesian rule, including formulating the text of the proclamation of Independence. He could be persuaded to get out to Rengasdengklok Events Rengasdengklok.

In 1943, Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo to invite leaders of Indonesia Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta and Ki Bagoes Hadikoesoemo to Japan and received by Emperor Hirohito. Even the emperor gave Star Empire (Holy Rachael) to the three figures is Indonesia. The awarding of stars that makes the Japanese occupation government was surprised, because it means that the three characters were considered Indonesia Japanese imperial family itself. In August 1945, he was invited by Marshal Terauchi, the Army leadership in the Southeast Asian region Dalat Vietnam who later declared that the proclamation of Indonesian independence is a matter of the Indonesian people themselves. But his involvement in bodies formed organization accused Japan made by the Dutch Sukarno cooperated with the Japanese, among others in romusha case.

Revolutionary War
Sukarno with the national leaders began to prepare themselves before the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Indonesia. After hearing the Investigating Committee of Indonesian Independence Preparation Business BPUPKI, subcommittee consisting of eight people (official), subcommittee consisting of nine persons per committee Nine (which produces the Jakarta Charter) and the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence PPKI, Soekarno-Hatta Indonesia State founded based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.

After seeing Marshal Terauchi in Dalat, Vietnam, there Rengasdengklok event on August 16, 1945; Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta were persuaded by the youth to get away to boarding homeland defense forces Rengasdengklok Map. Youth leaders who persuaded the others Soekarni, Wikana, Singgih and Chairul Saleh. The youths demanded that Sukarno and Hatta declared independence soon the Republic of Indonesia, because Indonesia’s power vacuum there. This is because Japan had surrendered and Allied troops had not arrived. But Sukarno, Hatta and the leaders refused to wait for clarity about the reasons for Japan’s surrender. Another reason is the Soekarno developing appropriate moment to establish the independence of the Republic of Indonesia which is chosen on 17 August 1945 when it coincided with Ramadan, the Muslim holy month that is believed to be in the first revelation of the Muslims to the Prophet Muhammad’s Qur’an. On August 18, 1945, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta PPKI be appointed by the President and Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia. On August 29, 1945 appointment as president and vice president confirmed by KNIP.  on 19 September 1945 the authority to resolve the Soekarno bloodless field event in which 200,000 people Ikada Jakarta will clash with Japanese troops who were armed to the teeth. 

At the time of arrival of the Allies (AFNEI) led by Lieutenant General. Sir Philip Christison, Christison finally recognize the sovereignty of Indonesia as a de facto after meeting with President Sukarno. President Sukarno was also trying to resolve the crisis in Surabaya. However, due to forces launched provocation NICA (Netherlands) who ride the Allies. (under UK) burst event 10 November 1945 in Surabaya and the death of Brigadier General AWS Mallaby.

Since many provocations in Jakarta at the time, President Soekarno eventually move the capital city of Indonesia from Jakarta to Yogyakarta. Followed by vice president and high officials of other countries.

The position of President Sukarno by the 1945 Constitution is the position of president as head of government and head of state (presidential / single executive). During the revolution of independence, the system of government into executive semi-presidensiil/double. President Sukarno as head of state and Sutan Syahrir as Prime Minister / Head of Government. It happened because of the vice presidential decree No X, and the government decree in November 1945 about the political parties. This is taken to the Republic of Indonesia is considered a more democratic country.

Although the system of government changed, at the time of the revolution for independence, the position of President remains the most important, especially in the face of the Madiun affair during 1948 and the Dutch military aggression II that led to President Soekarno, Vice-President Mohammad Hatta and a number of high state officials arrested the Netherlands. Despite the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (Emergency Government) with the head Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, but in reality the international and domestic situation continued to recognize that the Soekarno-Hatta Indonesia is a real leader, only policies that could solve the Indonesian-Dutch dispute.

Early Independence
After the Dutch government recognized Indonesian sovereignty, President Soekarno was appointed as President of the United Republic of Indonesia with Mohamad Hatta as his Prime Minister. Then the position of President of the Republic of Indonesia was given to Mr. Assaat, who was known as the RI of Java-Yogya at that time. Even so, because of Indonesia’s demands that Indonesia wanted to return to being a unitary state, on August 17, 1950 the RIS was changed back to RI and Sukarno returned to President of RI. At that time Indonesia was experiencing a ups and downs in the cabinet where President Soekarno lacked confidence in the multiparty system and called it a party disease.

In addition, President Soekarno also gave many ideas internationally because of his concern for the fate of nations in Asia and Africa, many of which were not yet independent and did not have the right to self-determination. This also led President Soekarno to take the initiative to hold the Asia-Africa Conference in 1955 at that time in Bandung. At the Conference, the leaders of this country then talked about various kinds of problems ranging from inequality, fears of the emergence of nuclear war, injustice of international bodies in terms of conflict resolution and much more to be discussed there.

Together with President Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt), Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia), U Nu (Burma), Mohammad Ali Jinnah (Pakistan) and Jawaharlal Nehru (India), President Soekarno held the Asia-Africa Conference and produced the Non-Aligned Movement. For this service, many countries in Asia and Africa can get independence. Even so, not a few also experience long conflicts because of injustice. For this great service, it is not surprising that many people in Asia and Africa know Sukarno. To be able to run an active free international politics, the President Soekarno also visited several countries and met with leaders of other countries such as John Fitzgerald Kennedy (United States), Nikita Khruschev (Soviet Union), Mao Tse Tung (RRC) to Fidel Castro (Cuba ).

4. The Death Of Seokarno

Sunday, June 21, 1970 President Soekarno died at the Army Hospital (Gatot Subroto Central Hospital), Jakarta. President Soekarno was buried in Wisma Yaso, Jakarta and then buried in Blitar, East Java, adjacent to the grave of his mother, Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai. The government then set a period of mourning for seven days.

Ir Soekarno is a true hero of Indonesia. He was not only credited for his own people but also gave his service to peace in the world. All agreed that Ir Soekarno was an unusual human being who was not necessarily born again in a century. Soekarno was the father of the nation who would not be replaced.

“I hate imperialism. I detest colonialism. And I fear the consequences of their last bitter struggle for life. We are determined, that our nation, and the world as a whole, shall not be the play thing of one small corner of the world”

– President Soekarno

Thank you for reading~